Tag Archives: shona

Returning to my Sekuru

20 Jul

The Shona belief of the word sekuru in stone

The mening of the word sekuru

In the Shona language the word sekuru has different meanings. Basically it is a word which defines the relationship between members of a family. Besides that, the word is also used for expressing strangers, like an elderly man showing a kind of respect.
In families the word sekuru is used for the paternal or maternal grandfather. This is understandable, these are elderly people. When you are female it is also used for the brother of the mother (uncle) and for his son. This is not so understandable, because even the uncle is treated as a husband. The wife of the uncle is your rival. If you are a male the uncle is your rival, because his wife is treated as your wife. How it will function in practice, I don’t know.

The maternal uncle is also regarded to become a replacement for the mother. He can be asked for advise, when you have a problem, that reaches out of the competence of the mother. That is also a task for the uncle, when the maternal grandfather dies and the eldest sekuru has to take over his role. In that case the mother will call him father.

The function of the sekuru in the Shona culture seems to be very complex and the urge probably has a reason. If you want to read more about the Shona sekuru-relationship, read the article of Chipo Musikavanhu on her blog
http://www.letstalkafrican.blogspot.nl/2013/07/the-shona-peoples-sekuru-relationship.html.

Is sekuru a theme in the Shona stone sculpture movement?

Did the Shona sculptors from the first generation use the theme sekuru within the carving of theirs sculptures? I think it was not a usable theme for the sculptors. I detected only two sculptors, who carved sculptures in relation to the theme sekuru, i.e. the late Joseph Ndandarika and Sylvester Mubayi, two great sculptors of the first generation.

Joseph Ndandarika

Let us start with Joseph Ndandarika. In 1977 he carved a sculpture, which he called: The Midzumu Bull (see picture 1)

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Fig. 1 The Midzumu Bull, sculpted by Joseph Ndandarika, 1977

midzumu is an ancestral spirit in Shona belief. When a sekuru (elder) had died, his spirit would be passed over to a young bull. The spirit would be kept inside the bull, for two years old. After that the bull  was killed. The spirit of the sekuru is then released and united with the spirits of his ancestors.

Joseph Ndandarika realised toexpose this story in one stone. When you look at the figures behind the bull, the outer left one holds the pot, in which the spirit was kept. The middle figures are blowing the spirit into the bull. The outer right figure holds the club to kill the bull afterwards. It is a nice sculpture in green springstone. The sculpture refers to the spirit of the sekuru.

Joseph Ndandarika was born in 1940 from a Malawian father and a Shona mother. His paternal Malawian grandfather had migrated to Zimbabwe long before that and became a highly respected n’anga (witch doctor). Joseph was apprenticed to become a witch doctor too. He spent some time as a neophyte trained to become a young traditional healer (Monda, April 2015). But he converted to Catholicism and went to the Serima Mission. There he joined Father John Groeber who was building a mission and  a church. Father Groeber taught youngsters  painting and sculpture for the decoration of the church. When the church was finished, Joseph Ndandarika went back to his parents in Mutare.
In 1959 Joseph Ndandarika joined the Workshop School of the National Gallery, first for painting, clay-modelling and carving in wood. In 1960 he started with sculpting in stone, when he met Joram Mariga in Nyanga. He became a well-known sculptor.

Joy Kuhn wrote in her book ‘Myth and Magic’ (1978) that she had an interview with Joseph Ndandarika. He told her his beliefs when he was sculpting in his early days. He referred to his Malawian grandfather, the n’anga, and told herthat the grandfather had a story:
“He used to go home to Malawi in ten minutes time to fetch a fish from there (…).  He went on  the bird, the manjojo bird. That bird was magic and my grandfather could ride on him”.
And Joseph sculpted an old man with a pointed head , riding on a bird (1978:83).

Joseph Ndandarika had a profound respect for his sekuru.

Sylvester Mubayi

Sylvester Mubayi made a sculpture in 1997, which he called: ‘Returning to my Sekuru’ (see Fig. 2). It is a nice sculture in springstone, representing a man with a child. This is a clear reference to the sekuru. Why Sylvester Mubayi used this theme is unknown, but there could be a reason, which I will explain later.

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Fig. 2 Returning to my Sekuru, sculpted by Sylvester Mubayi, 1997 (Joosten, 2001:275)

Sylvester Mubayi was born in 1942 in the Chiotah reserve near Marondera in the North Eastern Zimbabwe. In 1966 he was looking for a job and he met Tom Blomefield, who just had started with the Tengegenenge Sculptor Community. He joined Tom Blomefield and became one of the leading sculptors in Tengengenge. But not for long. In 1968 he went to the Workshop School in Harare. The Workshop School was founded by Frank McEwen, director of the Rhodes National Gallery.

Frank McEwen made Sylvester Mubayi his leading sculptor. He rated him as a greater sculptor than Henri Moore (Zilberg, 2006:n.p.).

After Independence in 1988 Sylvester Mubayi had a One Man Exhibition in the Francis Kyle Gallery in London. In a review of this exhibition Michael Sheperd of the Sunday Telegraph wrote as follows:

“Now that Henri Moore is dead, who is the greatest living stone sculptor? When I were to choose, I would choose from three Zimbabwean sculptors – Sylvester Mubayi, Nicholas Mukomberanwa and Joseph Ndandarika” (Mawdsley, 1997).

Also in 1991 The Guardian (U.K.) voted Sylvester Mubayi as one of the top 10 sculptors in the world (Monda, June 2015).

Did Sylvester Mubayi create the sculpture ‘Returning to my Sekuru’ after a statement, made by Joseph Ndandarika 

Joseph Ndandarika was a well-known sculptor and became a wealthy man.Tony Monda wrote that he met Joseph Ndandarika in 1989 for an interview and the latter spoke to him with the words: “I am the great Shona sculptor Ndandarika – who are you”? (Monda, April 2015). That was two years before his death. Joseph Ndandarika died tragically in 1991, barely 50 years old.

Just before his death, he is alleged to have spoken these words:

I am now wealthy and famous, but I am dying.

At last my spirits call me back to my remote childhood village.

There my sekuru receives me  with such compassion and gentleness,

that I weep on his lap.

Could these words have been the reason for Sylvester Mubayi to sculpt the sculpture ‘Returning to my Sekuru’ in 1997? It seems to be a fact, a child on the lap of an old man.

Someone had the knowledge of this, then he or she puts the words of Joseph Ndandarika and the stone of Sylvester Mubayi together in a picture (see Fig.3).

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Fig. 3 Returning to my Sekuru

This closes the circle. Two great sculptors expressed their respect for the sekuru, the paternal grandfather, in words and stone.

Maastricht, July 2015
Pierre Swillens

Cited references:

Joosten, Ben
2001 Sculptors from Zimbabwe, the first generation, Galerie de Strang
Dodewaard The Netherlands

Kuhn, Joy
1978 Myth and Magic, The Art of the Shona of Zimbabwe., Don Nelson, Cape Town

Mawdsley, Joceline
1997 Chapungu: The Stone Sculptures of Zimbabwe, Harare: Chapungu

Monda, Tony
April 2015 Joseph Ndandarika – (1940-1991) … the n’anga who became a famous shona sculptor
June 2015 The last lion of Zimbabwe stone sculpture

Musikavanhu, Chipo
July 2015 THE SHONA PEOPLE’S RELATIONSHIP EXPLAINED

Zilberg, Jonathan
2006 The Frank McEwen Collection of Shona Sculptures in the British Museum

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Sculptors from Zimbabwe (part 2)

9 Mei

Using the owl as symbol

Preface

Jonathan Zilberg PhD attended me on the book Myth and Magic, The Art of the Shona of Zimbabwe, written by Joy Kuhn and published in 1978. It is one of the first publications of books about the Zimbabwean Stone Sculpture, starting in the 60s and 70s [Note 1].

Myth and Magic. The Art of the Shona of Zimbabwe

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I searched on the Internet for this book and I found a used copy of this book for an acceptable price (Fig 1), from someone in Scotland. When I received it, I discovered that it looks and smells like an old book. Despite this I am very delighted with the book.
Joy Kuhn is not a professional art scientist, but she has had spent a substantial part of her life in Central and South Africa. The book contains a lot of photos of sculptors in the late 60s and early 70s. Unfortunately, in the book, she mentioned the names of the sculptors in the manner they were used at that time, i.e. only by first name. In the case of ‘Henry’ it is not a problem. She meant the late Henry Munyaradzi. But the reference of the artist’s name ‘Ndale’ arises some questions. By looking it up in the lexicon Sculptors from Zimbabwe by Ben Joosten (2001) I found out that the sculpture belongs to the late Ndale Wile, a Malawian, who sculpted at the Tengenenge Sculptor Community.

Likewise, the sculptor’s name ‘Matere’ or ‘Matera’ may not be known instantly. This name belongs to the sculptor Bernard Matemera. Even Bernard Matera used that name in this period, unless it is a misspelling from Joy Kuhn. She also didn’t mention the year in which the sculptures were produced.

In spite of these minor objections the book is useful, because she interviewed a lot of sculptors from the first generation. In this way we get an insight in the beliefs, motivation and thoughts of the sculptors during the sculpting.

 

Fig. 1 Cover of the book Myth and Magic

Using owls as a symbol in sculpting

Joy Kuhn talked to the, meanwhile, deceased Bernard Takawira. He explained to her how animals can influence sculptors in their work.
Bernard Takawira was a member of the Nyatate sculptor group around Joram Mariga. His brothers John, Patrick and Lazarus were also sculptors.  Bernard Takawira was born in 1948 and belongs to the Shona people. He was one of the twenty-four children in his family.
He followed the primary and the secondary school and received a degree in agriculture at the Mlezu Agricultural College.
He saw his older brother John carving in stone.  In 1968 he started sculpting himself. Frank McEwen, Director of the Rhodes National Gallery, saw his pieces of art and convinced him that he would be a good sculptor (Joosten 2001, 134)

Bernard Takawira told Joy Kuhn:

Owls, though, the Shona fear them. They are always associated with witchcraft. For we believe that women, in particular, can be transformed into animals –   then creep into your house  and sit on you, so you wake up feeling sick. First the owl – then, the hyena, then the ant-eater, then, the bat. If the mongoose crosses your path  you know that where you are going things are not right. It is better, then, to go home. And if you see a chameleon digging, it is bad; you will get sad news, particularly about death…..(Kuhn 1978, 14) [Note 2].

Ephraim Chiruka

The sculptor on the cover of the book Myth and Magic, is Ephraim Chiruka (see Fig. 1). He called his sculpture a Huge Owl [Note 3]. He was a nephew of Chimbewere, the Chief whose spirit guards the sculpture village of Tengenenge (Kuhn 1978, cover).

Ephraim Chiruka says about the stone

She – this woman – is changing into an owl. Your mind goes like that if you are carving stones…(Kuhn 1978, 49)

Ephraim Chiruka provided his sculpture with women’s breasts. The breasts of a witch, he said.

He was born in 1940 in the Guruve area and belongs to the Shona people.  He started sculpting in 1966 in the Tengenenge Sculptor Community. His favourite theme was horses, because they reminded him of old people who use horses for transport to move their goods from one place to another (Joosten 2001, 165/166).

The  Huge Owl was not the only owl which Ephraim Chiruka sculpted. He carved a bewitched owl as well which he called Owl Woman (Fig. 2).

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Fig. 2 Owl Woman, sculpted in 1969 by Ephraim Chiruka (Joosten 2001, 167)

And he sculpted also a normal owl (Fig. 3)

scannen0005-cs2Fig. 3 Owl, sculpted by Ephraim Chiruka, year of production unknown (Kuhn 1978, 58).


Henry Munyaradzi

There are also owls carved without signs of the spirits of witchcraft, like the owl of Henry Munyaradzi. This is rather an elegant sculpture of an owl. Unfortunately, the year of production is not known.
Henry Munyaradzi was born in 1931 in the Guruve district. He belonged to the Shona people. His father left the family when Henry was a young child, so Henry got no formal education.
He raised up in the family of his nephew Edward Chiwawa. As a youth Henry herded cattle. In 1968/1969 he started sculpting in Tengenenge. He is auto didactic and became successful immediately.
In 1975, due to the Liberation War, it became too dangerous in Tengenenge. Henry moved with his family to Chitungwiza.
In 1985 he bought a farm in Ruwa, east of Harare, where he died in 1998 (Joosten 2001, 283).

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Fig. 4 Owl sculpted by Henry Munyaradzi (Kuhn 1978, 59)

Edward Chiwawa

Edward Chiwawa was born in 1935 in the Guruve district. He belongs to the Shona people. He is a nephew of Henry Munyaradzi. He saw his nephew during the act of sculpting. He started sculpting himself in Guruve in 1970. He was taught by Wilson Chikawa. He brought his sculptures to Tengenenge to sell them.
In 1975, due to the Liberation War, Tengenenge was closed and in Guruve it became too dangerous, so Edward moved with his family to Harare, to join Tom Blomefield. After the war ended Edward did not return to Guruve. He now lives in Chitungwiza and is still sculpting (Joosten 2001, 175/176).
In my first  paper Sculptors from Zimbabwe (part 1), I mentioned that I met Edward Chiwawa last year in the sculpture garden Beeldentuin Maastricht – Heerdeberg in the Netherlands. Around 1988 he sculpted an owl (Fig. 5). This owl has been exposed in the collection of the Afrika Museum, Berg en Dal, the Netherlands.

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Fig. 5 Owl, sculpted by Edward Chiwawa, c 1988, (Joosten 2001, 177)

Dofe Khoreya
Another owl is the owl sculpted by the sculptress Dofe Khoreya (Fig. 6).This is an owl in modern art, totally abstract. The owl is recognizable by the beak. The year of production is about 1968. The sculpture belongs to the collection of the Afrika Museum, Berg en Dal , the Netherlands.
I don’t know what the sculptress wants to express with the holes in her piece of art. My interpretation is that both the upper holes are wings and the lower holes are paws. Has someone got another idea of the meaning of these holes? A hiding place for spirits could also be a possibility.
Dofe Khoreya was born about 1939 in Malawi. She married Bauden Khoreya, also a successful sculptor. They have one son Harry, who is also a sculptor. Bauden and Dofe started in 1968 with sculpting in Tengenenge. Dofe was one of the few women, who sculpted. In that time sculptors thought that women could only help by polishing the sculptures men produced. The family lived in the Tengenenge Sculptor Community until 1976 (Joosten 2001, 212-215).

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Fig. 6 Owl, sculpted by Dofe Khoreya, c 1968, (Joosten 2001, 214)

Moveti Manzi

Moveti Manzi is a sculptor of the second generation. He was born on the first of January 1960 in Centenary. His father Josiah Manzi was also a successful sculptor. The parents of Josiah Manzi moved from Malawi  to Zimbabwe in 1918. His mother Jenet Manzi is a sculptress.
Josiah started sculpting in the Tengenenge Sculptor Community in 1966, Jenet started there in 1968.
Josiah sculpted print stones as well. So did Moveti Manzi when he was a boy. In 1997 three print stones were found in the mud in Tengenenge, two belonged to Josiah, and one to Moveti. The last one is saved in the Tengenenge Museum in Dodewaard, the Netherlands (Joosten 2001, 338).
From Moveti Manzi an owl is exhibited for selling in the sculptor garden Beeldentuin Maastricht – Heerdeberg, the Netherlands (Fig. 7).

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Fig. 7 Owl, sculpted by Moveti  Manzi, photo: Pierre Swillens

Epilogue

Jonathan Zilberg devoted in his dissertation, as mentioned in note 1, a chapter on “Spirits in Stones” referring to the belief in spirits of the Shona People. He cited Joy Kuhn’s book Myth and Magic, when she expressed, after interviews with the sculptors Sylvester Mubayi, Nicholas Mukomberanwa and Joseph Ndandarika, their belief  in spirits. They stipulated that they converted this belief in their stones (Zilberg 1996, 167 – 176).

Shona sculptors feared the spirits of animals, like the owl, the hyena, the ant-eater and the bat. Especially the spirits of the owls, who – according to them – practiced their witchcraft on women.

In Athens the Greece people endowed the owl with wisdom, the Shona in Zimbabwe endowed it with witchcraft.

Maastricht, march 16,  2015

Pierre Swillens

Notes

1. Jonathan Zilberg received his doctorate of Philosophy in Anthropology in 1996 in the Graduate College of the University  of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign with the dissertation Zimbabwean Stone Sculpture. The Invention of a Shona Tradition. Before and afterwards he wrote many publications about this subject. He is one of the few scientists who made their publications fully accessible for everyone.

2. Olga Sicilia found this aspect so important that she cites this passage out of Kun’s book in her dissertation There is No Such Thing As a Spirit in the Stone. , Misrepresentation of Zimbabwean Stone (Sicilia 2009, 96).

3. The titles given to sculptures are often arbitrary, are often made up by dealers or writers. The artists themselves can change the names  of the titles depending on whatever they think that the buyer or photographer wants to hear (communication Zilberg).

 Cited References

Joosten, Ben
2001 Sculptors from Zimbabwe, the first generation, Galerie de Strang, Dodewaard, the Netherlands
Kuhn, Joy
1978 Myth and Magic, The Art of the Shona of Zimbabwe, Don Nelson, Cape Town
Sicilia, Olga
2009 There is No Such Thing As a Spirit in the Stone, Misrepresentation of Zimbabwean Stone (diss.)
Zilberg, Jonathan
1996 Zimbabwean Stone Sculpture, The Invention of a Shona Tradition (diss.)

Sculptors from Zimbabwe (deel 2)

4 Aug

the first generation

Eerbetoon aan Bernard Matemera

Inleiding

In mijn vorige blog bracht ik naar voren, dat in de Beeldentuin Maastrich-Heerdeberg  een beeld staat, gebeeldhouwd door Bernard Matemera en dat als een zelfportret moest worden beschouwd. In deze blog wil ik iets meer vertellen over Bernard Matemera.
Als bron gebruik ik hiervoor het reeds eerder genoemde boek ‘Sculptors from Zimbabwe’, geschreven door Ben Joosten.

Tom Blomefield

blomefield-5Voor dat ik over Bernard Matemera begin, moet ik eerst iemand anders noemen en dat is Tom Blomefield. Deze man heeft ontzettend veel betekend voor de kunstenaars van Zimbabwe en het beeldhouwen in steen.
Tom Blomefield is in 1926 geboren in Johannesburg (Zuid-Afrika). In 1948 kwam hij naar Zimbabwe en een jaar later trouwde hij met een dochter uit een rijke familie van tabaksplanters.
Met behulp van zijn schoonfamilie kocht hij een flinke lap grond en verbouwde hierop een tabaksplantage.
Hij noemde zijn gebied Tengenenge naar een riviertje, dat naast zijn grondgebied stroomde. Tengengenge heeft meer betekenissen, maar een ervan is “Beginning of the beginning”.
Tengenenge zou door de bemoeienissen van Tom Blomefield een wereldwijd begrip worden binnen de beeldhouwkunst van Zimbabwe.

Tom Blomefield, zoon van een kunstenares, was niet begeesterd door het werk op de tabaksplantage en toen het slechter ging met de plantage, zocht hij naar een andere bron van inkomsten. Hij wist dat op zijn grondstuk serpentijnsteen voorhanden was, dat zich makkelijk leende om te worden bewerkt. Hij ontmoette in 1966 een jonge Zimbabwaanse kunstenaar Christen Chakanyuka, die elders een opleiding had genoten tot beeldhouwer in steen. Met hem als leermeester begon Tom Blomefield met het beeldhouwen in steen.

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Omdat Blomefield zag, dat er geld mee te verdienen was, moedigde hij zijn arbeiders aan om te bekijken of ze ook aanleg hadden voor beeldhouwen in steen. Een ervan was Bernard Matemera, voorman op zijn tabaksplantage. Bernard Matemera had aanleg en produceerde al snel beelden, die werden verkocht.
Het succes trok meer mensen aan en Tom Blomefield stichtte de Tengenenge Sculpture Community, Pvt Ltd. Dit was het begin van een kunstenaarsgemeenschap, waarin de kunstenaars gedijden en in hun levensonderhoud konden voorzien. Dit alles volgens het zakelijk inzicht en het enthousiasme van Tom Blomefield.

Bernard Matemera

Zoals gezegd een van die kunstenaars van het eerste uur was Bernard Matemera, geboren in 1946 in Guruve matemera-8a(Zimbabwe). Hij genoot vier jaar lagere school. Hij moest in zijn vrije tijd het vee bewaken. Tijdens die werkzaamheden beoefende hij houtsnijkunst en klei-modellering.
In 1963 kwam hij naar Tengenenge om daar tewerk worden gesteld als bestuurder van een tractor op de tabaksplantages. Hij werkte ook voor Tom Blomefield
In 1966 vroeg Tom Blomefield hem of hij tot de kunstenaars gemeenschap Tengenenge wilde toetreden. Bernard Matemera had talent. Hij maakte een beeldje van een schildpad en daarna een van een giraffe. Dit beeldje werd verkocht door de National Gallery en Bernard Matemera ontving hiervoor 14 Pond.
Bernard Matemera ontwikkelde een eigen stijl. Hij behoorde tot de Shona cultuur en sprak een Shona dialect  Opvallend aan zijn beelden is, dat de figuren vaak drie vingers aan een hand en twee tenen aan een voet hadden. Zie o.a. het beeldje dat op de foto aan zijn voeten staat. In zijn stam heerste de antropologische mythe, dat een dergelijk volk in Zambezi bestaan had of nog bestond. Nog heden ten dage leeft in West-Zambezi, dicht bij de Zambezirivie, een geïsoleerde stam de Doma, waaarvan de leden door een genetische mutatie twee tenen aan hun voeten hebben. De drie middelste tenen ontbreken.

Zie ook het volgend beeld Family.

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matemera-10aBernard Matemera gaf toch graag zijn beelden een mythologische betekenis. Zo ook het beeld ‘the man who eat his totem’. In zijn stam kreeg ieder persoon een totem toegewezen. Dat kon zijn door de vader of door een medicijnman. De totem was meestal een dier. Nu was het een wet, dat de persoon zijn  totem niet mocht doden of opeten. Het laatste heeft hetzelfde effect als het eerste.
Nu had volgens Bernard Matemera de man zijn totem (een wildzwijn) opgegeten en nu veranderde zijn hoofd
in een zwijnskop. Helaas ook die van zijn zoontje, want die had kennelijk meegegeten.
Bernard Matemera legt hiermede een  boodschap in zijn beeld. Hij of zij die de wet overtreedt, zal worden gestraft. En dan bedoelt hij niet de wet van de overheid, maar de wet van het volk.

(Deze drie foto’s zijn gescand uit het boek “Sculptors from Zimbabwe” aan de hand van Ben Joosten).

De boodschap dat men zijn totem niet mag doden herhaalt hij in zijn beeld ‘the man changing into a rhino’. Iemand had zijn totem een rinoceros gedood en kreeg een hoorn op zijn hoofd.

Dat het niet zo eenvoudig is om aan zo’n beeld te werken, blijkt uit de volgende foto. Het beeld waar Bernard Matemera aan werkt, noemde hij ‘Rhino Man’. Het is een van zijn eerste werken.

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Ik wil nog een beeld behandelen, omdat Bernard Matemera dat zo apart vond. Het beeld op de linkerfoto stelt voor ‘Sitting Doma Man’. Over het Doma volk heb ik reeds eerder iets verteld. Het beeld mocht van hem niet worden verkocht en na zijn dood moest het naast zijn graf worden geplaatst. Hij stierf vrij jong en of hij zijn  dood voorvoelde, weet ik niet. Het sierde zijn graf een tiental jaren. Daarna  werd het door de Bernard Matemera Estate  geschonken aan de Rhino Head Gallery.

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Epiloog

Bernard Matemera was een autodidact. De talenten voor het beeldhouwen in steen had hij vanaf de geboorte.
Bernard Matemera was een Shona en doordrongen van de Shona cultuur.
Bernard Matemera was een van de eersten, aangeduid als the first generation’.
Bernard Matemera was ‘the godfather’ van de Tengenenge kunstenaarsgemeenschap.
Bernard Matemera was een neo-expressionist. Zijn beelden moesten iets voorstellen.
Bernard Matemera zocht in zijn beelden naar het mystieke.
Bernard Matemera zocht in zijn beelden de grenzen op tussen het menselijke en het dierlijke.
Bernard Matemera  was een fenomeen in het beeldhouwen in steen. Hij ging helaas te vroeg heen.

Bernard Matemera werd niet altijd begrepen, maar de erkenning van zijn kunstenaarschap was wereldwijd.
Bernard Matemera was de Picasso onder de beeldhouwers in steen.

Pierre Swillens

Fotogalerij